Flash File System f2fs in Linux integrated

Linus Torvalds has integrated the code to support the file system f2fs in the main development branch of the Linux kernel, in the just prepared Linux 3.8 (u. A. 1, 2, 3). The presented in October f2fs is primarily developed by Samsung employees file system that has been specially tailored to the needs of disks that use flash memory chips and a rather simple kept Flash Translation Layer (FTL) included - including USB sticks, memory cards such as eMMC and SD card as well as the storage media contained in cameras, tablets and smartphones.

F2fs is a log-structured file system (LFS), which operates similarly to Btrfs with copy-on-write (COW) - when a file is overwritten, the file system creates the new data from a different place and deletes the reference to the old data. Unlike Btrfs or Ext4 but f2fs disk fills sequentially - so it does not care about fragmentation and submit new data from getting behind the previously used point. Only when it gets to the end of the volume, it starts again front and uses to store the meantime liberated areas there. Similar mechanisms also use the Flash Translation Layer of flash media - to ensure, among other for uniform use of flash chips, as these can handle only a limited number of writes. F2fs is designed to ensure that the file system and Flash Translation Layer harmonize; Moreover, the design of f2fs to avoid some known issues of LFS file systems. Further details on the f2fs explains the associated kernel documentation and an article on LWN.net; The latter comes from Neil Brown, who oversees the MD software RAID code of the kernel and Mdadm.

The userspace tools "f2fs-tools" to create a f2fs drive found in Kernel.org. The file system is just one of many improvements that Linus Torvalds has integrated into the main development branch since the release of Linux 3.7. The merge window phase in which it takes almost all major innovations for a new version is typically two weeks; Therefore, the merge window of Linux should end 3.8 this weekend. Following primarily only fixes and small, harmless changes in the main development branch incorporated; provided that the kernel developers work in the usual rhythm, Linux should 3.8 released in February.(Thl)

GeeksPhone retires and leaves the community be MultiOS

Website Black Phone

The Spanish manufacturer that has brought some Android smartphones and hyped Black Phone on the market throws in the towel, leaving the community be MultiOS.

The Spanish smartphone maker GeeksPhone gives up. "We place the development of our multi-OS platform in the hands of the user community," it said in a release that has released on Thursday the company. After six years and six smartphone models the company had arrived "a cycle end" on. The community had been handed over as part of what is permissible, necessary to the development of tools. Technical support for the device run unchanged.

The revolution is over

"Join us leading the mobile revolution," still stands on the site of the Spanish company. GeeksPhone was founded in 2009 by Rodrigo Silva-Ramos and Javier Agüera to develop an Android smartphone for geeks. Later GeeksPhone also took Firefox OS in the program, bringing the Revolution finally a dual-OS smartphone out.

Through a partnership with the software provider Silent Circle GeeksPhone has also developed the Black Phone, which promised a particularly high level of protection with the Android derivative PrivatOS, but has fallen short of expectations. In February, the ways of the partners had separated again. In the course of Silent Circle had completely taken over the development company jointly established for the Black Phone.

New challenges

This also most developers have switched to Silent Circle, it said in the letter dated June 20 but published only on Thursday release. The GeeksPhone partner Ana Gay Puente and Javier Agüera have changed the company. Co-founder María Alzola has left the company. Rodrigo Silva-Ramos and Angel Sánchez Díaz will now branded as "geeks! Me" develop wearables.

(Vbr)

Carbine – the new super-carboxylic

carbin

A new carbon version is supposed to be superior to all other materials to tensile strength.

For carbon nanotubes and graphene, another form of carbon is now making a splash among researchers: carbine. It consists of long, one-dimensional chains of carbon atoms, such as the Technology Review magazine in its latest issue 5/2017 reported (now to order at the kiosk or shop H).

Carbin in the graph Corset

The new May issue

The new May issue

The new Technology Review is now 24.4. commercially available - the highlights:

  • Focus: New Materials
  • Who's afraid of Robocops?
  • Trial and error
  • Once his God: 150 US dollars

Already more than 130 years of Nobel laureate Adolf von Baeyer predicted that carbine should be tensile strength than all previously known materials. However, carbon chains are very reactive and destroy themselves repeatedly. Just last year managed an international team led by Thomas Pichler from the University of Vienna, the synthesis of a carbon chain of more than 6000 atoms. It is more than a micrometer in length - in nano scales a large respectable length.

"We have the carbine included in a long, double-walled nanotubes of graphene in a corset"Says Pichler. "It offered sufficient protection against the outside world." Inside this molecular tunnel that carbon atoms could react with anything else, and only one-dimensionally grow in length.

Carbin: The ideal material?

Carbyne is to theoretical predictions of Boris Yakobson of Rice University in relation to the weight of about one thousand times stronger than steel. Some researchers believe they have found the ideal material for extremely light and strong ropes. Thus, even an elevator could theoretically implement into space. "Even artificial muscles for robots or prosthetic could in future consist of carbine"Said Angel Rubio from the Hamburg Max Planck Institute for the structure and dynamics of matter and member of Pichler's research team.

In addition, he believes, could carbine "replace silicon as the semiconductor perfect day." To commercial use but can still take up to 25 years, says Pichler. Among other things, the researchers need to solve the challenging task to find out the Carbinketten from the nanotubes. (Joseph Scheppach) /(GRH)

China can be locked 50 more porn sites

The Chinese government has frozen from Friday to today 50 more websites. Thus climb, the number of blocked as part of the ongoing campaign since Monday against Internet pornography sites to 91, reports the Xinhua news agency. The campaign is to last for one month. In this context, operators like Google and MSN have been called for.

Among the sites that were now no longer accessible from China belong 789b.com and 678tp.cn. They should have not complied with the applicable regulations in China for website owners, after which the public dissemination of images is prohibited with sexual content.(Andreas Wilkens) /(ANW)

Firefox 49 can read

Firefox

(Picture: AP, Mozilla Foundation)

With the recent update Mozilla continues to work on the multi-processor architecture and offers Android users better offline support.

Mozilla has released version 49 of Firefox for Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Android. A notable new feature of the desktop variants is the read-aloud function in the Reader mode - can turn - accessible on the book icon in the address bar. The plug behind it WebSpeech API can also use a web developer. Also new: The Android version uses the cache sensible and above indicates referring Web site, even if just there is no Internet connection.

Introduced in Firefox 48 multiprocess architecture (project "Electrolysis") Has further expanded Mozilla. While originally only Firefox users without any add-ons could use multiple processes, the browser also allows for some extensions that now. Electrolysis the status can be seen on the side "about: support" under the entry "Multi Process Windows" members. Further improvements list the release notes.

Firefox Hello is removed

The developer tools are waiting for with some improvements, such as a new column in the network tab that indicates the cause of the respective connection. Many other improvements have been made in support of Web technologies, such as the `` - and `` elements or improvements in CSS backgrounds. In addition, Mozilla is sloppy web developers meet with support for numerous `webkit` CSS prefixes.

Buried Mozilla has the WebRTC-based chat service Firefox Hello, who had been introduced only last year in version 35th In addition, the browser stops (10.8 runs on older OS X version "Mountain Lion" and older), and Windows on very old Pentium III processors with SSE instruction set.

(Herbert Braun) /(Dahe)

Exhaust scandal VW conversion plan baffled experts

grid

This grid will save Volkswagen million.

(Photo: Volkswagen)

Completed a small plastic mesh exhaust scandal? At least that Volkswagen would like to make believe and sells the proposed solution a success. But there is a catch, my industry experts.

Basically, it's just a little thing. But at VW in Wolfsburg they are these days even a little proud of the small grid. After weeks of exhaust scandal is not commonplace. "It seems pretty simple, now installed as a grid, but it was complicated to invent it"Said VW spokesman Pietro Zollino technology. With "advanced simulation methods" was the VW engineers still managed it. Finally VW can sell a success again - even if it's just a simple plastic tube.

So VW says the solution now found. So VW says the solution now found.(Photo: Volkswagen)

small successes

Compared with the period before the exhaust debacle still sounds quite modest. Since the VW executives were almost no opportunity to emphasize the high engineering Wolfsburg developer and present VW as a pioneer in the industry. Now it is a small grid that VW should at least return a piece of this self-consciousness. But can the so-called flow straighteners fulfill the expectations?

"I am surprised, of course, know that such a simple part is to be the solution now"Says Jörn Getzlaff of the FH Zwickau. "But it's possible." According to Volkswagen, the German Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA) has already confirmed the remodeling plans. You must now be permanently removed for each model, it is out of the KBA.

The exhaust scandal at VW

The exhaust scandal at VW

VW has fitted million engines with software to manipulate the evaluation of pollutant emissions. Trigger the scandal were investigations by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  • Exhaust scandal mean what exceeded limits from other manufacturers
  • In the mist of the exhaust scandal: Inventory and technical background for the VW affair
  • Compromise with US authorities: VW takes another hurdle in the exhaust gas scandal
  • VW targeted by the US Justice
  • US Environmental Protection Agency: VW cheating by software

Solution: flow straightener

What makes this flow rectifier anyway? It is in the part of a small mesh, so to speak, takes the swirling air flowing through the air cleaner toward the engine, in order. Therefore, the so-called air mass meter can provide more accurate results, explains the VW spokesman. And that in turn will lead to the engine control unit can adapt the current better and also reduce nitrogen oxide emissions.

But what's the catch? "If improve the levels of nitrogen oxide, at least one other value must deteriorate"Ferdinand Dudenhoeffer of the University of Duisburg-Essen is certain: "Anything else would be to square the circle." Also motor engineer Getzlaff thinks this is very likely: "Primarily, the consumption could rise."

That could lead to new problems for VW but. "There are judgments that state of consumption to the test must not be more than ten percent higher than the value which the manufacturer claims"Says Getzlaff. "VW will try to stay within this framework." VW chief spokesman Hans-Gerd Bode spread optimism in any case: "We can say to each motor when we have analyzed each car it first. VW is "the goal is to have no consumption or even sacrificing performance, close."

Cheap retrofitting

VW would do that, it would be a cheap solution for VW. Getzlaff estimates the cost of the flow rectifier "well below one euro", Dudenhoeffer has already calculated that VW would have to shoulder less than 500 million euro cost of the conversion of the 1,6- and 2,0-liter engines. That would be well below the 6.7 billion euros that VW has covered the entire cost of the technical solution for the affected around 11 million cars.

Industry insiders Frank Schwope of Nord LB notes however that the greatest financial threat for VW still emanating from the legal risks: possible fines and lawsuits from consumers and shareholders. By contrast, the upcoming costs for the technical re-equipment fall likely to be rather less important.

Many questions unanswered

Moreover, the presented reconstruction measures are to bring only cars in Europe legally compliant emissions. North American VW has to develop its own solution and there - that indicated the company spokesman already - could it be a bit trickier, because there the limits are again stricter than in Europe. The question is, which bring nitrogen oxide emissions the cars in question to the test when the manipulation software is turned off. Then could at least guess whether the exhaust problem in the US can ever solve a conversion. But for this VW is silent so far.(Felix Frieler, AFX) /(Mho)

New Atlas robot is stable and phlegmatic

Atlas robot

With enough momentum can upset Atlas well. But he is right back up.

(Image: Screenshot)

The Google subsidiary Boston Dynamics has developed a new generation of humanoid robot Atlas. The demo video is worth a thousand words.

Peace and tranquility, the latest generation of Atlas robot goes to work. On the night of Wednesday, the Google subsidiary Boston Dynamics has released an instructional video of its latest model. Atlas trudges through snow-covered forest floor and corrected unexpected balance problems in a split second. When storing of boxes he can not bring himself even by deliberate disruptive from the rest.

See also:

  • Google robot Atlas now wirelessly on the go
  • Atlas, the rescue Terminator
  • Robots: Agile and fast

Compared to the previous model is Atlas, The Next Generation, shrunk by 15 centimeters to 175 centimeters. At the same time he has closed nearly half of its weight. He only weighs about 81 kilograms. In his "head" LIDAR works and stereo cameras. In the upper body and legs sensors are built to help their data while keeping the balance.

The limbs are moved hydraulically, the current provides a built-in battery in the upper body. Atlas is designed for use both indoors and outdoors. The first Atlas version was shown mid-2013. The name goes back to a project of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA. The end of the same year Boston Dynamics has been acquired by Google.(Ds)

Network control with Parental Control

Ess_Map.jpg(Image: Cisco)

Cisco has its network management software Network Magic updated to version 5.5. The system developed by Pure Networks program configures routers from different manufacturers; Cisco pays its Linksys routers with a customized Basic version. According to Cisco, the program helps the network lay in setting up and managing a LAN or a wireless network.

Network Magic Basic displays a graphical overview LAN, supports up to eight computers on the LAN, detects intrusions and directed LAN and WLAN via a Assitenten. It has a dashboard and also includes a 30-day trial of Network and Parental Control Home Network Defender and a 7-day trial of Network Magic Pro. Network Magic Pro controls access individual computers to the LAN and the Internet: Thus, for example, can set the duration of Internet use. Some newer models of routers from Cisco have installed additional software that further tax and regulatory mechanisms by "Home Network Defender" Offer. As well as the Pro version Network Magic Essentials works with routers from other manufacturers. A list of supported devices can be found on a Cisco site. A second website lists compatible wireless devices. The program creates and manages file and printer shares of up to three LAN computers and monitors the network through a monitor. Sharing between Windows and Mac OS X machine aimed Network Magic is a means of an additional plug-ins.

"Network Magic" requires Windows XP (32/64 Bit, SP 1 or later) or Vista (32/64 bit). The Network Magic for Mac Add-on works 10.4.9 (Tiger) and 10.5.5 (Leopard) for Mac OS X and runs on computers with Intel, G4 or G5 processors. Network Magic Pro costs according to the list 50 US dollars, the Essentials version $ 30 and the Network Magic Mac add-on $ 25. An upgrade from older versions (4.9 and above) fails with $ 25 to book. In the online shop Cisco makes currently 20 to 40 percent discount on these prices.(Reiko Kaps) /(Rec)

AMD Radeon RX Vega takes the first half of 2017

AMD Radeon RX Vega takes the first half of 2017

AMD's upcoming high-end graphics cards running under the name Radeon RX Vega. AMD's GPU chief developer Raja Koduri presented at GDC, some technology demos.

AMD has announced at the Game Developers Conference the name of its next-generation graphics cards with Vega graphics chips (Details GPU architecture). They run under the name Radeon RX Vega and are to appear in the first half of 2017, but still anticipates in April infusion of Polaris graphics card or a series Radeon RX 500 out. Although AMD's graphics chip chief architect Raja Koduri announced no specifications for upcoming high-end graphics cards, but showed at least some technology demos, some of which should run on Vega hardware.

AMD / heise online The High Bandwidth cache controller can significantly increase the frame rate in graphic memory-intensive 3D scenes according to AMD.(Picture: AMD / heise online)

The VR demo "The Sword of Bahubali" showed the almost photo-realistic model of an Indian actress, moving smoothly through a highly detailed world. According Koduri the developers have recreated an area of ​​over 200 acres, the number of 100 GB are to source data basis.

Another demonstration was to show the advantages of high bandwidth cache controller (HBCC) using the game Deus Ex Mankind Divided. The HBCC particular allows paging to external memory such as RAM, SSDs and NVRAM. With active HBCC the minimum frame rate to twice and the average frame rate rose in the shown Deus Ex scene by 50 percent, according to AMD. Such advantages promises HBCC but only if the video memory of the graphics card is not enough.

AMD / heise online Vegas higher computing power can be used for example for a more beautiful hair simulation.(Picture: AMD / heise online)

AMD also showed the benefits of twice as fast compared to FP32- FP16 processing of Vega GPUs for players. This could be for example in the hair simulation TressFX apply and enables twice the number of extensions for the same performance. For example, the game Rise of the Tomb Raider is already on GPU-accelerated simulation hair, leaving Lara's hair react dynamically to external forces. Future wants AMD to work closely with Bethesda and optimize their games for AMD hardware.

1 out of 36

Complete AMD presentation for graphics architecture Vega (36 images)

Koduri also announced that Vega GPUs should, among other things thanks to their hardware encoding unit also suitable for virtualization of online gaming. So it is possible to play as a lower-performance Windows or macOS laptop demanding titles such as Battlefield 1 - directly from a server via the Web. AMD collaborates for the cloud gaming provider LiquidSky and apparently wants to compete with Nvidia's GeForce Now.

(Mfi)

NASA: Second Earth only a few light years away

Based on the data of the NASA space telescope Kepler will US scientists believe that there could be Earth-like planets in cosmic neighborhood already. The closest planet that resembles our home, could the researchers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), according to his mere 13 light-years away, they conclude. This assessment is based its calculation that 6 percent of all red dwarfs, the most common type of star of our galaxy, are orbited by Earth-like planets.

Artist's impression of a planet in front of a red dwarf(Image: David A. Aguilar (CfA))

For their analysis, the researchers identified all red dwarfs in the star catalog Kepler and then equalized the result with the identified candidate planets from. At the end of three candidates is available on the planet's surface were living. Statistically, the hot, that every 17 red dwarf is surrounded by a terrestrial planet. In our Milky Way has four out of five stars for this type, which means there are in our galaxy at least 75 billion red dwarfs.

orbiting a red dwarf, including the three in the habitable zone Kepler planetary candidates.(Picture: C. dressing (CFA))

Earth-like planets around red dwarfs those are also easier to According to scientists to find as they orbit the smaller stars close and are larger in relation to them. This increases the likelihood that they cross our view in front of the star. The three identified in Kepler catalog candidates have 90 to 170 percent of the size of our Earth. They orbit their suns in 20, 30 and 56 days and are between 300 and 600 light-years away.

As our earth itself is surrounded by a whole series of red dwarfs, it is probably starting from the new calculations that the next Earth-like planet is only 13 light years away. According to them, a specially assigned small space telescope or a network of Erdobservatorien could look for. Once found, the Giant Magellan Telescope, or the James Webb Space Telescope could find out if they have an atmosphere in the future.

However, the researchers point out that such a world would differ significantly from ours. Because it is located much closer to their star, they would probably still turn to him the same page. But heat could be transported across an ocean or a thick atmosphere. Before the much stronger UV radiation latter could also protect. At the same time these factors could favor the emergence of life. Because red dwarfs live much longer than main sequence stars like our sun, is also to assume that life on it had a lot more time for its development. One of the scientists even speculate on a second Earth, 10 billion years old.

The Kepler space telescope since 2009 observed a fixed section of the night sky in the constellation Cygnus. Here, the telescope repeatedly measures the brightness of 150,000 stars to detect planets that slide between the telescope and star. Meanwhile, the updated catalog lists more than 2,000, mostly larger stars on with possible exoplanets.(Mho)

Dell computer soon at Media Markt

Alienware Aurora ALX(Picture: Alienware)

Dell is expanding its retail Cooperation: Starting this week, certain notebooks and desktop PCs from Dell should be to have at Media Markt. The second largest PC company in the world, has sold around 38 million computers last year, according to estimates by the Gartner market research company, has been cooperating with other retailers. In the US, end users can Dell PCs already at Best Buy, Staples and buy Wal Mart, Carrefour in France and the UK Dixons. Smaller retailers can purchase certain Dell devices on the PartnerDirect program.

To Dell devices, the media wants to sell the market, initially include desktop computers of the (consumer) series Inspiron and Studio and later notebooks. Also via Media Markt Dell wants to sell the gaming machine of the Alienware brand. Whether Media Markt sells only Dell PCs with Intel processors, has not been announced.(Ciw)

YouTube Super Chat highlights paid Comments

YouTube Super Chat highlights paid Comments

YouTube wants to secure a new source of funding for the rapidly increasing number of live streams. Users should be able to buy their comments in the accompanying live chat to be prominently visible.

The video platform YouTube starts with vigor into the new year: Apparently the video platform is increasingly relying on its occupied for Ultra HD resolution video format VP9 so Safari users look at 4K videos into the tube. In addition, YouTube bolted to the live chats; they have recently not only visually redesigned and allow direct addressing of the participants of the @ symbol, YouTube wants to party and live streams with the new function "Super Chat" open up another source of income.

Paid highlighting

Viewers can leave their comments for a fee, for example, to highlight. The entries will then be up to five hours to read above the chat list.

Demo of the new Super Chat YouTube Demo of the new Super Chat YouTube(Picture: YouTube / Google)

According to YouTube, the organizers of live streams could thus come into closer contact with their biggest fans and also to open up a source of funding, the Google subsidiary announced.

Live performances on the video platform of stars and starlets attracted recently more and more fans. The comments highly frequented live streams covered in the groin often in such high speed that they are often not read. Who wants to give more weight to his entry, is now able to place prominently readable him.

YouTube has launched the beta version of the Super chat among others, the YouTubers iHasCupquake and Alex Wassabi. On January 31, the service for YouTube partners in 20 countries to (including Germany) and start to viewers in more than 40 countries.

Fan Funding is switched off

The 2014 introduced in several countries of the function "fan Funding"Could assist with the fans their idols YouTube directly financially, however, to be set by the end of February due to low usage.(With material from AP) /(Vza)

Cyc: AI with world knowledge ready for market

Cyc: AI with world knowledge ready for market

(Picture: Saad Faruque / Flickr / cc-by-sa-2.0)

The company Lucid will commercialize artificial intelligence Cyc. The inventor of the project, Doug Lenat had programmed it since the 1980s world of knowledge by hand.

After 31 years of development, the Cyc project is ready for market. Underlying this is an artificial intelligence that is based on an ontology, a database with thousands of semantic information. Including those not found in any encyclopedia, because they are natural for humans. The inventor Doug Lenat had nothing less made with Cyc to explain than one computer, how the world works. The reported Technology Review Online article "After 30 years Cyc is nearing completion",

"It is not as if there were nothing more to do"Says Lenat. But most of what the database should still be added, relates only to specific topics such as finance or cancer research. With the company Lucid Cyc is to be used for commercial purposes - including personal assistants, who are equipped with knowledge cycs. They should be less prone to silly misunderstandings than about Apple's assistant Siri or Google Now. Lucid developed by its own account with banks and financial service related solutions that provide new insights into investment opportunities or insider deals are to be discovered.

In fact, Cyc was able to uncover a possible case of insider trading, when it noticed on the basis of an organizational structure that two parties have previously worked side by side. It follows, as Cyc had learned that they had to know too. The necessary data are from interviews with professionals from corporate documents or medical records. Contrary to the trend towards deep learning and neural networks, Lenat is convinced that techniques such as these remain incomplete without having to manually input knowledge. For example, Deep Learning is not very good to teach machines such thing as common sense.

More at Technology Review Online:

(Will Knight) /(Jle)

Pay please! Virtual Water in the art

Pay please! Virtual Water in the art

Today is World Water Day. to highlight how technology and water, so maintain an antagonistic relationship to each other rather a good opportunity, are interconnected.

20,000 liters of virtual water - as much plugged into a single computer. Besides the fact that you usually do not bring computers into contact with water (or should bring) - which is now a lot or a little? For comparison: (à 500 sheets of A4) For the production of a pack of copy paper must flow 5000 liters of water, for one kilogram of beef at least 15,500 liters.

Virtual water in US Dollars

Water in the computer or smart phone in water is usually an indication that the technology will be from now unusable. Virtual water in PC and Smartphone, however, gives an idea of ​​how much had to be spent by the rare commodity, from planning to the finished product.

Virtual or latent water the amount of water that can be assigned to a product in the preparation for a comprehensive analysis. In the US, containing about 100 liters per dollar, in Western Europe around 50 liters and products from Asia about 20 liters of virtual water.

Please pay

Pay please!

In this section we present every week Tuesday amazing, impressive, informative and funny figures from the fields of IT, science, economics and mathematics even before.

  • More articles on "Pay please!"

Green, blue and gray virtual water

It flow different types of virtual water in the calculation, depending on the origin and nature of the water supply.

Various types of virtual water are distinguished: Green virtual water comes from rainfall and natural soil moisture. Blue virtual water is used for irrigation. Gray virtual water means water that can be reused due to a deterioration in service.

The aim of the breakdown of water consumption is to have a transparent accounting of water consumption and to counteract future water shortages by sensitive handling of this very.

How much virtual water is in ...?

While a sheet of paper consumed about 10 liters of virtual water, a single microchip comes to 32 liters. A cup of coffee a day is preceded by 140 liters and for the production of a smartphone already 910 liters of virtual water must be expended. An entire board requires 4165 liters. However, leaders of technology products is the computer. The manufacturing cost in virtual water is 20,000 liters, or about 142 standard tubs (each 140 liters).

Inforgrafik to virtual water consumption of technology products such as smart phone and computer Inforgrafik to virtual water consumption of technology products such as smart phone and computer

Water is needed for the entire manufacturing process. In Smartphones, this means that flows from the jaws of the microchip on the molding and manufacturing of the metals and other raw materials to the production of the batteries to polishing of the touchscreen water, a total of 910 l.

If one follows the forecast that the number of activated mobile phones will soon exceed the world's population, there are 6.7 trillion gallons of water that were used for their production. The conversion into bathtubs I skip here prefer.

Water footprint across countries

In Germany, about 1,545 cubic meters (or 1,545,000 liters) are used virtual water per inhabitant per year. In the US, each person consumes even 2,483 cubic meters per year. In Japan, there are 1,153 cubic meters and in China even only 702 cubic meters. By the way: While Germany is export champion for other goods, it looks at the virtual water is different: Here is more import than export.

Germany is the consumption of latent water in the upper half. The reason for this is the high consumption of industrial products and meat, which require a high water demand in manufacturing.

World Water Day by UNESCO

March 22 is celebrated the World Water Day by UNESCO since 1,993th He is every year a different theme and is intended to draw attention to the shortage of water in the world. "Water and jobs" is the motto of this year's World Water Day. (Aks)

Phobos: Fracturing moon can bring Mars a ring

Phobos

This image of Phobos made the NASA probe MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) 23 March 2008 from 6,800 kilometers away.

(Image: NASA / JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona)

The fate of the larger Phobos appears to be sealed: He will be torn According to the researchers in the distant future. This will then create something entirely new: a separate ring for the Red Planet.

A shattering moon can the planet Mars in a few million years bring their own ring. This sets in any case, an analysis that present Benjamin Black and Tushar Mittal of the University of California (Berkeley) in the journal Nature. Accordingly, the Phobos will benefit the Red Planet as close in 20 to 40 million years ago that the Trabant is torn. The debris is then accumulate expected to form a ring which may exist about a million to one hundred million years,.

Very small satellites

The Mars is of two comparatively small moons orbiting in a very small distance, Phobos and Deimos. Both are so small that the force of gravity has not rounded off with diameters of less than 30 kilometers. Instead, they are irregularly shaped. Phobos, the larger of the two, takes its course only some 10,000 kilometers above Mars, approaching him on a slight spiral path slowly getting further. By comparison, our moon has a diameter of nearly 3,500 kilometers and orbits the Earth in about 400,000 kilometers away.

1 out of 10

The Phobos (10 pictures)

A detailed picture of the moon, taken by ESA's Mars Express spacecraft of less than 200 kilometers away.
(Image: ESA / DLR / FU Berlin (G. Neukum))


With its spiral path Phobos will inevitably be destroyed: either he falls eventually to Mars or the tidal forces of the planet tear it in orbit. What fate awaits the little moon depends on its composition. With the help of observational data and a geotechnical model Black and Mittal have calculated the strength of the satellite. Thus, it is not very stable and is expected to ripped in 20 to 40 million years ago. Then it is so close to the Mars that its gravity at the bottom of the moon draws much stronger than at the more distant top. This difference holds Phobos then probably not, and will break.

In this way, others might have been destroyed inside wandering satellites of planets in our solar system long ago, the researchers have additions. (AP) /(Mho)